The date of the earliest church is unknown, but in 1270 there is a record of an anchoress, Alice, dwelling in the church. The present church is 14th century, the most beautiful feature being the western arch.
The carved screen with its fine detail is thought to date from about 1370, as it bears a coat of arms of Thomas Arundel, Bishop of Ely from 1374 to 1388. Under the carpet in the chancel is a brass dated 1593 of John Martin and his wife Margaret.
The North Porch is a recent extension, providing a toilet, storage, facilities for flower arrangers and a level route into the church with no steps.
The pulpit is hexagonal and was once part of a three decker pulpit. It bears the date 1635.
The font consists of a fourteenth century stem of clunch, topped by a limestone bowl.
The stained glass east window is the parish's memorial to the men of Barton who died in the 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 wars. There is more information about the men commemorated on the war memorial on the Roll of Honour website. Two of these men were buried in Barton churchyard: Corporal Walter Jackson's grave is to the north of the church, close to the north porch, and Group Captain John de Courcey's grave is by the foot of the tower, on the south side.
An excellent overview of the church through the eyes of a visitor can be found on the Cambridgeshire Churches website.